White Porcelain

White Porcelain
White Porcelain

Recognizing Forged or Fake Porcelain Marks

San Francisco, California - February 23, 2008 - In the last or so decade, there has been a huge influx of porcelain items, especially figurines and other decorative porcelain objects, that are marked with what appear to be older European or American marks. Most of these items are of high quality, but are not antique. The vast majority of these come from China, or Asia in general, and usually do not have a country of origin mark.

"We get hundreds of these marks as inquiries from our members" says Lisa Marion of www.Marks4Antiques.com. "Usually, our researchers can tell right away that these lovely porcelain items are made in China; however, many of the marks are so similar to authentic antique marks that require a more detailed look". Marks4Antiques.com continually updates its databases and includes all newer porcelain marks as soon as they are encountered. This way, members of the site can quickly determine the authenticity of their antiques and avoid costly mistakes.

For example, items made for export to the US after 1891, must also declare the country of origin. This requirement was enacted into law based on several Tariff Acts in the 1890s. Older items usually include the country of origin as part of their overall trademark or have the words "Germany" or "England", "France" etc near the actual porcelain mark. However, many recent Asian imports get away with this legal requirement by using a sticker or label, which is often removed or lost after the item’s entry to the US.

Luckily, there are some other ways to recognize most of these forged or imitation porcelain marks. Here are some tips that are easy to follow:

1) Examine the mark around the edges using a Magnifying Lens: If the mark appears too perfect and perhaps applied using some industrial machine, then the mark is probably recent. In these cases, the mark is usually stamped or at times slightly raised or impressed. Most items made prior to 1950 had their marks applied by hand, so these stamps would wear out or the firmness with which they were applied varied from worker to worker or over time. Older porcelain marks are not as clear or sharp at the edges.

2) If the mark is a shape or symbol, look closely: Most recent porcelain marks are close imitations of older authentic marks used by Meissen, Sevres, Chantilly, English Staffordshire Potteries (usually Coats of Arms or Crests), Gardner etc. However, almost always they differ in one or two minor details, such as the endings do not curl the same or have symbols that are obscure or are out of scale. Although some older authentic antique marks were applied in free hand style, using an Artist’s thin brush, the difference is still visible once you have seen several versions of the original mark.

3) If the mark includes words, read carefully: Often, newer imitation porcelain marks intentionally misspell words, such as "SEVRE" instead of "SEVRES" or "STAFORDSHIRE" instead of "STAFFORDHIRE" etc. Please compare thename you read with the authentic one by running a quick search on Google or eBay.

4) The size of the mark: Typically, newer porcelain marks are larger than the original ones. It is very possible to find a mark that is practically identical to an authentic older one, but its size is 2 or 3 inches across. Older porcelain marks rarely exceed 1 – 1.5 inches.

5) Be aware of the word "CHINA": Because "china" also refers to Dinnerware as in "chinaware", many newer porcelain marks include the word CHINA in the mark, for example "IRONSTONE CHINA" in capital letters, which helps to comply with the country of origin laws but also confuses a collector in thinking that this is part of the original company name. In fact, many marks of older Potteries, especially in England and the US, as well as on many logos of legitimate ca 1890s – 1930s importers of genuine French, German or western porcelain, included the word CHINA as part of their trademark, which is now misused by traders from the East.

6) Copyright symbol: The universal symbol for "copyright" is usually the letter C enclosed in a circle. This is a fairly recent symbol and did not exist during the 19th or earlier centuries. If a mark looks similar to an older or antique porcelain mark and also has this Copyright symbol, then it is a new imitation mark.

7) "VICTORIA" or "VICTORIAN": Although there were a handful of companies that used these words within their logo or as a name of a Pattern, the words "Victoria" and "Victorian" are often seen on newer imitation porcelain marks. Please compare your item with others on Google or eBay to see if you can find other similar ones and see what these sellers have to say. In the vast majority of cases, these words indicate newer pieces.

8) Age & Construction of the piece: Finally, examine the piece for any signs of real age. Most antique porcelain starts to show tiny cracks in the glaze after several decades, especially Earthenware or old glazed Chinaware that has been used extensively, called "crazing". Although many new pieces exhibit similar crazing, the lines appear very bright and white, indicating artificial stress during Firing to create this effect on purpose. Old crazing is usually somewhat discolored since dust and dirt tend to accumulate in these cracks and shows over time. Other reliable signs of age include:

1. The way the mold is put together: older ones tend to be "tighter" with almost no seams,

2. The "blow hole": the tiny opening, usually at the bottom of a porcelain figurine, that allows air to escape from within a piece while in the Kiln, is usually rough and hand-pierced on antique pieces , whereas on new ones it is very "clean" and symmetrical,

3. The base of a figurine or, in the case of chinaware, the foot rim: older pieces exhibit wear and tear or feel somewhat rough to the touch or are slightly discolored or "dirty",

4. The colors: older pieces used softer, more gentle colors and are not too bright, whereas newer pieces tend to be very "intense",

5. The "whiteness": porcelain on older pieces is even and bright; most recent pieces tend to be a slightly grayish or bluish.

As mentioned in the beginning of this article, many newer pieces are of good quality and are often even better alternatives to older pieces for decorative purposes. However, if you are a Collector or an Antiques Dealer trading in Antiques, you certainly want to know…

Accredited media interested in discussing this press release in more detail are encouraged to schedule an interview by sending a request to Contact@Marks4Antiques.com or visit their Web site at Marks4Antique.com

About Marks4Antiques.com

Marks4Antiques.com was created to help Collectors and Dealers to research Antiques & Collectibles. The successful launch of Marks4Ceramics.com in 2004 was quickly followed by Marks4Silver.com in 2006 and then Values4Antiques.com this year. All websites were designed for use online in order to accommodate the growing number of mobile Antiques and Collectibles Dealers that roam the country to different Auctions or Shows and those that sell or buy online (eBay etc). Subscribing to any of the websites provides easy and fast pictorial methods of identifying and elf-appraising items. An active member can also contact the experts of each website for personal assistance when a mark is not already in the database at no additional cost. To facilitate an unbiased Antiques Research & Evaluation environment, no Trade (buying or selling) of items is allowed through these sites as they are totally dedicated to Research. All staff are avid Collectors, Appraisers and professional Dealers. The company is owned and operated in the State of California, USA.

About the Author

i want to install polished white 24x24 porcelain floor tile, whats the best color grout for this type/color ?

tile. any advice?

Is it a pure white? If so your best look will be a white grout. If you have any coloring or haze of color in the tile pick up and match that as best as possible. The use of any other colors in a pure white tile will show as a checker board look on the floor. Maybe not so bad in a real light tone, but any time you go a grey tone it will jump out at you.
You asked about type of grout, most likely you ll need a sanded grout and have to use a 1/8 th 3/16 th or a 1/4 inch grout joint.I prefer 3/16th myself and thats what I use on most all my jobs. There are a few (few) porcelains made to go tight together and you ll need a unsanded grout. These you can tell by the tiny beveled edge they ll have .. Any questions you can e mail me thru my avatar and check out my qualifications there GL


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We hope you found the
White Porcelain

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Chinese Erathenware how to develop to be one worldwide famous porcelain   by Warren Blocker

The definition of "Porcelain" usually identifies a thing whose body is produced from clay containing kaolin, is coated with a glaze, and is fired at an extreme temperature so that the body materials fuses in addition to the resultant object is impervious to liquids and is resounding when hit.

Following your invention of pottery inside the Neolithic period, (5000-2200 B.C.), the ancient Chinese been successful in manufacturing colored pottery, black pottery and carved pottery. The long years of working experience in kiln firing led China going in an unique ceramic age in the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) Although archaeological finds have uncovered that glazed ceramic was manufactured as early as the Western Zhou dynasty (1100-771 B.C.), however the production of glazed wares has not been common before the Han Dynasty.

An understandable change in the attitude of figure modelling in the Six Dynasties (265-588 A.D.) was the trend to add more information, a shot to produce the models look more true. Six Dynasties potters also succeeded in enhancing the quality of early celadon wares both in glaze colour and in body clay. Producing glazed proto-porcelain was a significant accomplishment in Chinese porcelain history.

The most important involvement manufactured by Tang dynasty (616-906 A.D.) potters was their bold introduction of the multi-colour wares. Noisy . Tang dynasty, creation of sancai , or tri-colour pottery figurines control the pottery scene. Tang pottery figurines comprised three mayor lists, that is human figures, animals and fabulous tomb guards.

The dominating house of the Sung dynasty (960-1279) doted on sophistication plus the trendy accoutrement of culture, and it appropriately gave emphasis to the fine arts. Under this activation, the manufacture of porcelain evolved, and it was at this time that several honored kinds of wares were developed. From the T'ang dynasty (618-907) into the Sung, Ding ware succeeded Hsing ware, Long-quan ware continued the custom of Yue ware, and both equally the white wares along with the green wares made great progress when considering superior and volume. Additionally, the creation of dignified shapes and harmonious glazes reached a full maturation in Guan ware, Ru ware, Jun ware, and Chua ware. The porcelain industry at Jing-te-zhen in Jiangsi province was also forging for it presently with Yin qing wares, white wares and Ci-chou type wares offered during the entire north. Pieces with black ground and white decoration or white ground and black ornament are particularly energetic and exuberant, expressing the special soul of the people. Among the black-glazed wares, Jian wares from Fujian province and Ci-chou wares from Kiangsi province are the most famous. In the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) Jing-te-zhen took over as the center of earthenware generation for the complete empire. Most representative of Yuan dynasty porcelain are the blue underglaze and red underglaze wares, whose designs painted beneath the glaze in cobalt blue or copper red, replaced the more elegant monochromes of the Sung dynasty. All at once, from the standpoint of the shape of the objects, the chinaware of Yuan dynasty became thick, weighty, and classified by great size, adjusting the elegance of Sung dynasty shapes. Because of this we can receive some notion of the disparities in between the eating and drinking customs of the Sung and Yuan dynasties.

The imperial porcelain manufacturing area was started at Jing-te-Zhen at the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), and because of this time the location of Jing-te-Zhen as the center of chinaware production turned consolidated. The imperial Porcelain ceramic wares that were specifically created to be utilized at court were made specially brilliantly and were marked with the reign Seal mark of the emperor himself. Together with the monochromes and the underglaze blue porcelains that continued to be created amongst the official wares of the Ming dynasty, inventions showed up through the entire period, which include pan-to-tai wares in the Yung le reign (1403-1425), chihung in the Hsuante (1426-1436), tou ts'ai in the Chenghua (1465-1488), chiaohuang in the Hungchih (1488-1506), and wu ts'ai in the Wanli (1573-1620), all of which are representatively significant in the history of the improvement of Ming dynasty ceramic.

In the earlier time period of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), during the reigns of Kang-xi (1662-1722), Yong-zheng (1722-1736), and Qian-long (1736-1795), the court considered the appointment of the supervising official at the imperial porcelain ceramic manufacturing facility at Jing-te-Zhen a really serious matter. This symbolized a reform from the Ming practice of entrusting control to court eunuchs, and as a result there came up great progress in quality at the factory, collecting the legacy of Ming dynasty skill and taking it to the apex of its development. The use of fantastic, glittering fen-Cai enamels is a manifestation of porcelain in the qing dynasty.

On the subject of both quantity and top quality, the gallery of formal porcelain in the Dynasty Antique may truly be called the leading in the world. Every form of ware from the Sung, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties happen to be picked out here to show the total spectrum of porcelain progress. Apart from the visual gratification these items provide, it is hoped that they will help you, the visitor, to realize the achievements of the art of porcelain ceramic in China.

About the Author

Chinese antique